V SEPTEMBER 19 41--
Comments On The Contributions
BY FLOYD W. La ft OUCH E
In Charge of Information and Publications
Surprising to many private employers of skilled labor is the fact that In-
dians can perform efficiently a variety of technical tasks requiring special skills and
aptitudes. This has been especially notable in many fields of defense industry. A
great many of these special skills have been acquired through work and instruction in
the Indian Division of the Civilian Conservation Corps. But the aptitudes, capacity to
learn and the will to work at new and difficult Jobs, these things have always been
present. Old friends of the Indian are surprised that strangers are surprised at these
things. These old friends have always known that Indians could work and would work if
given the opportunity.
The Indian shown poised high above ground in the cover picture, is typical of
hundreds of Indian CCC workers throughout the country. He is the operator of a drag
line engaged in an irrigation and flood control job at Navajo, and he is shown here
climbing to a dizzy height to release a cable. It's all in the day's work. The photo-
graph is by Milton Snow, Navajo Service photographer. Another picture by Mr. Snow ap-
pears on page 9, a Navajo boy on horseback.
The brilliant pageant and Indian Exposition at Anadarko are reported in this
issue only briefly because the time was short between the date of celebration and the
closing date of the magazine. Subsequently we hope to present additional material, in-
cluding photographs made oy a staff photographer who made a special trip to Anadarko to
jover this event.
The wild rice pictures were all made and contributed by Gordon Sommers. The
frontispiece shows a Chippewa woman with a birch basket containing rice which has just
been threshed. It was taken during the harvest at the Indian rice camp near Tower,
Minnesota. The picture on page 1U shows Chippewa Indians at Nett Lake, Minnesota, har-
vesting rice in the ancient manner. On page 16 we see Chippewas at the Tower, Minne-
sota camp drying rice. Parching wild rice at Little Rice Camp in Minnesota is seen on
page 17, and threshing is shown at Tower Camp, page 19. The outside back cover photo-
graph was taken at Tower Camp.
The pictures on pages 28 and 31 were made by Frances Cooke Macgregor.
Gerritt Smith, CCC-ID District Camp Supervisor is responsible 1 o r the two
pictures on page 33 • Above is Enrollee Arthur Montanic in a training course at Uma-
tilla Agency, Pendleton, Oregon, and below is Albert Ezekiel working in a similar
course at Chemawa School, in Oregon. CCC-ID schools like these are providing many pro-
ficient workers for Uncle Sam's defense machinery. And will produce many more.
C. H. Southworth, Acting Director of Indian Irrigation supplied material for
the sketch about Frank Parker, Indian Engineer, on page 13.
Old readers may recall that "Indians At Work" made its first appearance just
eight years ago. Primarily published for the benefit of Indians and Indian Service
workers, the little magazine has attained a wide usefulness and popularity in many out-
side fields. It goes by request for example to 275 newspapers, ranging in size and in-
fluence from the New York Times to some of the smaller weekly papers, and ranging al-
most around the world. That these papers find the material useful is attested by the
many requests we receive for additional material and for pictures.
The magazine now has subscribers in all £8 states and in 17 foreign coun-
tries, including many in South and Central America. From a few hundred the subscrip-
tion list has grown to 13,000 and many issues must be reprinted two or three times to
satisfy the demand. Libraries, museums, schools, colleges, clubs, public officials,
railroads, bus lines, air lines and chambers of commerce have requested subscriptions.
In an early issue we hope to tell you some of the details of the rapid and sturdy growth
of this phase of cur public service.
INDIANS AT WORK
,N THIS ISSUE ^"™—>TEMBER l94l
Comments On The Contributions Inside Front Cover
Editorial John Collier 1
Red Lake Woman Drying Fishing Nets
(Photo by Gordon Sommers ) 2
Learning To Weave, Rosebud, South Dakota
(Photo by John Vachon) 5
Student In Manual Training Class Repairs
A Chair, Sisseton, S. D. (Photo by
John Vachon) 7
Eastern Cherokee Schools . . .> . 8
Petroleum Coordinator Takes Indian Ser-
vice Personnel Director 10
Celebration At Anadarko Gene Dodson 11
Indian Engineer 13
In The Fashion Of Their Forefathers
Chippewas Gather Wild Rice 15
Independent Study Of Indian Self -Government 20
Learning Use Of Modern Laundry Equipment At
Carson, Nevada (Photo by Arthur Rothstein) 21
Changes At Blackf eet And Fort Hall 22
Iroquois Indian Named Brigadier 23
Haskell Student Learns Building Construction
(Photo by Gordon H. Brown) 24
Indians In The News 25
House Remodelled Under Rehabilitation Program
Is Painted By An Indian At Sisseton, S. D.
(Photo by John Vachon) 27
Book Reviews : "Twentieth Century Indians" 29
"Hear Me, My Chiefs" 32
Indians Conserving And Rebuilding Their Re-
sources Through CCC-ID 3U
Shoshone-Bannock Tribesmen Conduct Unusual
Ceremonial In Honor Of Louis Balsam Inside Back Cover
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTER I0R - OFFICE QF INDIAN AFFAIRS -WASHINGTON, D.C.
A News Sheet For INDIANS and me INDIAN SERVICE
VOLUME IX SEPTEMBER 1941 NUMBER I
These thoughts have come on Standing Indian Bald in North Car-
olina August 8th. It is a country of the Indian.
This is a very ancient mountain land. Its beginnings were the
beginnings of the Continent. Its present forms, commencing a hundred mil-
lion years ago, are due wholly to geological erosion; hence the myriadness
beyond the power of mind to hold, and that "monotony of enchanted sameness"
which is loved by those who love the land. Hundreds or thousands of domes
and ridges, of valleys and coves, are visible from this summit, but only
one cleared field. Never-moving waves they seem - ridges, summits and val-
leys - on a shadowed ocean after a storm has ceased to blow. This dome is
one among the countless unmoving waves. Wind-stunted laurel, wind-stunted
oak and mountain-ash, fruitless huckleberry bushes, contain the little
meadow which is the "bald" of the dome. Daisies, a blue flower un-named
which is known from the plains, other blossoms strong but colorless, rise
among the green soft grass of the little meadow, and bees, yellow-jackets,
bumblebees and ladybugs are feeding here.
A country of the Indian. If Indian pre-history could be known,
it would flow down from these endless wave-like ridges, as inexhaustibly
as their earthly waters are flowing now. Yonder-southwestward - are the
mounds which have yielded a decorative art as stylized, subtilized, and
post-sophisticated as any of the Mayan or Egyptian. There, down in Georgia,
are the mountains that white men named, which tell Georgia's record toward
Indians: Blood Mountain and Slaughter Mountain; beyond them, Dahlonega,
where the fatal gold was mined by white men - gold which doomed the Cher-
okees as it had doomed the Incas and Aztecs and soon would doom the hun-
dreds of California tribes. Of what mode of sweet speech, that did not
guess that future, do the very names of places tell, within this horizon
from Standing Indian: Valley of Nacoochee, Tellico Plains, Nantahala Riv-
er, Toccoa Falls, Junaluska Creek, Wayah Bald, Tusquittee Bald, Hiawassee
River, Headwaters of the Chattahoochie, Tennessee River, Tallulah Gorge,
the smoky Unakas which became the Great Smoky Mountains, the Appalachian
A drift of personal remembrance floats against the stormless
emerald-gleaming, opal -flushing landscape. The drift will soon be gone.
Into those horizon-bounding Unakas, westward from here, I went with a lit-
tle Cherokee boy, forty years ago. He had never penetrated these south-
ern Unakas before, but it was he who was the guide. An adult huntsman could
not have been more infallible; the mountain hound with me now, on Standing
Indian, could hardly be more infallible or swift. But what I remember is
our camp by Big Snowbird Creek in the deep woods in a moonless and starless
night. The foam of Big Snowbird was only a ghost in such darkness. I had
slept, and was wakened by a laughter which was like a song flung into the
night. Robert, the Cherokee boy, was laughing. "What are you laughing at,
Robert?" "Oh, I'm just laughing at the darkl" And from twenty feet away
came the dark's reply - that peerless, unrememberable cry hurled on the
universe, the wildcat's scream.
That memory drifts to another. Late September, after three wintry
weeks with very insufficient equipment on the highest of the Smokies, in
the balsam timber. Lean and f ami ned we ended a twenty-mile walk at Yellow
Hill, the Cherokee Indian (government) school. Food, warmth, human company -
our need was ravenous. What was it, so immediately downcasting on the
school's grounds? The little boy inmates could not or would not talk Eng-
lish to each other, and they dared not talk Cherokee. The Superintendent
came to his office at last. We knew we looked like desperados, and yet,
what was that de-hydrating, congealing estimate and purpose which went out
from that government man? He wore a uniform of the Army. At length he
agreed we could eat and stay for the night. This was an Oliver Twist place
but with every light and shade of imagination disbarred. Yet: What was
that "two-handed engine at the door" that "stood ready to smite once, and
smite no more?"' Horror itself gave up the fight, in this place. I had en-
countered Federal Indian policy of the self-righteous middle years. Here
was a place of pride of official Indian service, after twenty-five years to-
be: where Indian boarding school children were to be fed on six cents a
day, and not die, and Congress was to be told about it in 1927.
But away with personal remembrance, how trivial a mist across
this cosmic landscape.
Down yonder, west-southwestward eighty miles, was the heart of the
Nineteenth-century Cherokee social achievement. In the history of human
genius, as important an achievement as the blending of Celtic with Roman and
Greek spirit on Iona Island eight hundred years ago, or the establishment of
the Iroquoian Six Nations League. (Significant, say, rather than important;
importance depends on the blind chance of history; the blind chance which
extinguished the Cherokee and Iroquoian achievement permitted Iona to light
its fixe in the brain of Shakespeare. Yet. too, history is not ended; In-
dian history in this world is not closed.; Out there eighty miles west-
southwestward the Cherokees, having invented their alphabet, and having em-
braced an universal Christianity through the help of missionaries tolerant
and faithful, became the first Indian nation (the first not only in the
United States but in the Hemisphere) consciously, and with method, to re-
organize their culture into the European (the "Anglo-Saxon") pattern. They
carried the Continent-wide Indian democracy over to an electoral system and
became the solitary large community in the southern states possessing uni-
versal suffrage. They formed their parliament, their courts of law. They
established universal, free, schools. They founded their free press, and
their charitable institutions where no stigma was felt by the poor. Their
national area was seven million acres - this dreamland between here on
Standing Indian and the Unakas which loom above the Mississippi Plains, and
on a little way into Tennessee. They held this area and what spiritual
world they might create within it, under treaty guarantees of the United
States. What is it that might have gone on into the years, have flowered
in forms and substances strange, beautiful, challenging to our white race —
forms and substances into which our own greatest hopes had been poured,
creations disturbingly our own yet not our ownJ What might have gone on,
and become, and grown, and bloomed, and changed, and entered into the being
of the world, if Georgia and President Jackson had not rejected the eath
which the Nation had taken, and later, if Georgia and the President had
not successfully defied the Supreme Court.'
Into her very old age (here, another phantom of recollection
drifts over the mountain) my grandmother received a Federal pension. It
testified to my grandfather's service, when a boy, in the Cherokee Indian
War. This war was the burial of that treaty which had guaranteed the Cher-
okee land and government, and the blazing of that "trail of tears" along
which the Cherokee s were herded westward beyond the .Mississippi. The cost
of their forced "removal" being charged against their own trust funds in
the Treasury of the United States. Yet another solemn treaty guaranteed
their land and their culture, in Indian Territory. Before their new home
under their new sanction was fully built, it was crushed utterly, and
crushed under forms of law. The Supreme Court gave its blessing, this
time. But back to Standing Indian Mountain.
The Cherokee s are not gone from here. As individuals and as a
body corporate, organized under the North Carolina law and under the Fed-
eral Indian Reorganization Act, nearly four thousand of them are here still.
Robert's grandparents, and perhaps three thousand fellow-tribesmen (the
Cherokees numbered more than twenty thousand) defied the Army, and fled
to their wilderness home of a thousand years. Innumerable and bewilder-
ing are these southern mountains. They knew them in the way of birds or
* 9 v>
Learning To Weave, Mission
Boarding School^ Rosebud, S. D.
hounds or deer. Years passed, and a generation, and one by one the Cher-
okee s returned to the valleys. Dahl Onega's gold was only a trickle, nowj
working the mountain streams for gold, one was lucky to make a dollar a
day; gathering ginsing in the virgin woods paid better than hunting gold;
the men at the Capitals let the Cherokee s alone. Somehow they acquired
titles to land, a few thousand mountain acres. They merged their titles
into one, forbade its allotment and entailed it to the tribe, and incor-
porated themselves under the North Carolina laws. But much of their great
tradition, as of their great dawning hopes of a half -century before, had
been hewn away by the events. They are building now, but from a dwindled
cultural base. And thus late, now - how long too late, for the Cherokee s,
though not uselessly for them - the United States has returned to the good
. faith and the deep-founded historical obligation and the eminent common-
sense which were enunciated by Chief Justice Marshall, in vain, in behalf
of the Cherokees. Yet the decisions and dicta of Marshall established
the permanent framework and limits of Indian law, and brought the United
States into the Hemisphere-wide tradition which is represented by the Laws
of the Indies; in the strange way of human things, Marshall's efforts did
avail, though at the Tribe ' s time of awful need they availed the Cherokee
Nation not at all.
In one of the high coves leading toward Standing Indian lives a
mountain woman, ninety-eight years old. Her sight and hearing, like her
memory and loyalties, are undimmed. She lives glad and whole into each
new day. She was always here. In that mountain home are eleven of the
younger generation. Seven of them play music; some of them have mastered
two and three instruments. There has been no teaching; "in these parts,"
they remark, "we play only by ear. " The grandmother has told her chil-
dren and grandchildren: "The Indians- were a great people. They are going
to be a great people once more."
What have her old eyes seen, since the Cherokee RemovalJ A dif-
ferent folk-life, ancient in its spirit and forms though new in its lo-
cation, came in to the Cherokee homeland. Its language was of Chaucer and
the King James Bible. Its hardihood equalled the challenge of the wilder-
ness. Its hospitality went beyond the famed hospitality of the slave-hold-
ing South, because these Highlanders acknowledged no social classes.
Sixty years went by, and then into these mountains stormed com-
mercial lumbering and the fires and floods and poisonings of waters which
lumbering brought in its wake. It was total-destruction lumbering, absen-
tee in its control, financed on a "shoestring", unconscionable toward its
labor-supply which was the Highlanders, and ravenous and hurrying, without
any concern for the land's or the people's future, without, indeed, any
pretense of decency. The Anglo-Celtic Highlanders became successors in
fate to the Cherokee Indians, their land and their culture ravaged at the
same time. And with their desolated human values went the clean-cut and
burnt forests, the humus of a million years destroyed in a decade, the
hideously poisoned waters.
Yet: "Man does not yield himself to death utterly, save through
the weakness of his own feeble will." Some of the Highlanders, like their
predecessor Indians, have made manifest the truth of that old saying. Ul-
timately, death comes only from within, as life comes only from within.
And deep within, some Highlanders, like the Indians, would not die. From
deep within each, the future reaches on. Standing Indian Bald could be
named Standing Highlander Bald, too. So, at least, the aged woman in the
cove believes, and tells her grandchildren.
Commissioner of Indian Affairs
Eastern Cherokee Schools
Cherokee Indians of North Carolina have come a long way in .the
hundred years since they were a homeless, hunted band, hiding in the moun-
tains to avoid expulsion. They are descendants of the hardy and independ-
ent warriors who successfully evaded the Federal Government's forced removal
of the Cherokee Nation west of the Mississippi River over 100 years ago.
Their tribesmen were beaten and driven to Oklahoma, and many died along the
famous "Trail of Tears." The principal lands of the Cherokees were taken
over by whites. The remaining Indians were largely left to their own re-
sources and in a large part they have worked out their own existence.
Within recent years the Government has given increasingly sympa-
thetic and effective guidance and other assistance. One important field
of aid has been in education. Evidence of the success of the educational
program, as judged by white standards, is the fact that the Cherokee Central
School has now qualified for placement on the list of accredited schools in
North Carolina and put in group one, class A. last year 188 boarding school
students and 306 day school students were enrolled.
Notice of accreditment was sent to C. M. Blair, Superintendent of
the Cherokee Agency and S. H. Gilliam, Principal of Cherokee schools, by
J. H. Highsmith of the State Department of Public Instruction.
The school system at Cherokee, which is financed with aid from the
Federal Government, is now completely modern, both as to physical equipment
and methods of instruction. In addition to the usual academic courses, the
Indian children are given practical training in vocational subjects, in-
cluding dairying, farming, mechanics, woodwork, home demonstration and other
I ' *?«**••'
Petroleum Coordinator Takes Indian
Service Personnel Director
By Doris C. Brodt
On July 1, S. W. Crosthwait,
Assistant to the Commissioner of In-
dian Affairs in charge of personnel,
was selected by Secretary Ickes as Ex-
ecutive Officer for the Office of Pe-
troleum Coordinator for National De-
fense. His assignment to this organ-
ization, which was created in May to
coordinate existing Federal authority
over oil and gas and insure that the
supply of petroleum and its products
will be accommodated to the needs of
the Nation and the national defense
program, was made with the understand-
ing that he would be permitted to re-
turn to the Indian Service as soon as
the administrative organization of the
new office was completed. Besides the
central office in Washington, there
are five district offices located in New York, Chicago, Houston, Denver
and Los Angeles.
S. W. Crosthwait
Long Engaged In Personnel Work
Mr. Crosthwait, a native of New York, graduated from George Wash-
ington University in electrical engineering and took post-graduate work in
public administration at American University. He has been actively engaged
in administrative and personnel work and participated in national personnel
association conventions for many years. His first assignment in the Govern-
ment Service was in 1916 with the Navy Department, after which he entered
the Navy for service in the first World War. Upon returning from the War,
Mr. Crosthwait worked for a time in the Treasury Department in an adminis-
trative capacity. From there he was transferred to the Civil Aeronautics
Authority, where he was employed from 1925 to 1934. In 1934 he came to the
Department of the Interior as an assistant to First Assistant Secretary E.
K. Burlew and was assigned duties in connection with Public Works personnel.
On February 1, 1936, Mr. Crosthwait was appointed Assistant to the Commis-
sioner of Indian Affairs in charge of personnel, and was recently designated
acting Associate Chief of the Administrative Branch.
The personnel work of the Indian Service is an important element
in carrying out the present Indian policy of self-determination. Increasing
responsibility in the management of their own affairs has been manifested
in many ways by the Indians of the United States, notably in the conduct of
their tribal business through corporations chartered under the Indian Re-
organization Act of 193A-. As employment officer for the Indian Service, Mr.
Crosthwait was responsible for the employment problems of over 12,000 em-
ployees, more than half of whom were Indians.
Because of his experience and ability as a personnel adminis-
trator, Secretary Ickes detailed Mr. Crosthwait for six months' duty during
last year to the Bonneville Power Administration as his special representa-
tive, for the purpose of establishing a system of personnel administration
for the project.
Mr. Crosthwait is a member of the Interior Department Recreation
Association and served as its president in 1939.
Celebration At Anadarko
"There is peace on the prairie now, a peace imposed by the iron
rule of the white man; a peace that took the red man from his nomadic life
and put him to tilling the soil and learning the civilization of the con-
querors. But that peace did not come without bloodshed, without massacres
and raids that left white men, women and children dead in their burning
cabins, when the Indian was pushed farther and farther to the west by the
advance of the whites who wanted the fertile prairies for their own. That
struggle, from the days when the Indians were unquestioned kings of the
prairie to the final quelling of the hostile tribesmen seventy-four years
ago, was portrayed by a cast of more than Z,00 colorfully-clad Indians at the
opening night program of the tenth annual American Indian Exposition at
"Stirring tableaux, one after the other in a well-knit pageant told
the heart-moving story of the Plains Indians of Oklahoma and brought pro-
longed applause from the more than U, 000 spectators who jammed the exposi-
tion stadium and overflowed until only standing room was left.
"Two treaties, one of which fixed the boundary lines of what now is
Oklahoma, were featured in the pageant with historical authenticity. The
first was the treaty between the Wichitas and the Republic of Texas, in
18^3, and the second, the Treaty of 1867 at Medicine Lodge, Kansas, which
brought an end to the nomadic wanderings of the great Plains Indians and
took from them their great hunting grounds.
"The pageant began with a call to ceremonials by Eela Cozad, an
ancient Kiowa, last of the native Indian flute makers. A great ring of
trees and tepees formed a natural amphitheater in front of the grandstand,
and as the flutist's call came, the Indians, clad in native costumes, be-
gan a series of dances signifying their thanks to the Great Spirit for His
bountiful gifts of grain, fruit, vegetables and venison. The resonant
beat of the tom-toms died away after the harvest, hunting, ghost and buf-
falo dances to signal the end of ceremonials and the beginning of the first
episode which centered around peace treaties between the Delawares and
Caddos in 1862.
"Then came the years of tribulation, wars with the whites, the
gradual loss of their land to the pioneer settlers and the Army of the
United States, and a note of sadness dominated the chants of the Indian
singers. There followed the frenzied war dances of all the tribes, and
Comanche scalp dancers with their fierce and blood-chilling yells depict-
ing the fight of the Indians for their home land and the steady advance
of the whites. Finally, plagued by near famine, fed and cajoled by the
Army commanders, the Indians signed the famous Medicine Lodge treaty in
I867 and resigned themselves to a reservation life under domination of the
"With peace once more restored, the Indians set about making the
best of their new life, and as they progressed, they became more friend-
ly toward their white neighbors until eventually they learned to forget
the past and accepted the restrictions imposed upon them. Gradually,
with the passing of the years, the Indians turned from their primitive
life, accepted the white man's standards and teaching and there followed
a final democracy on the prairies with 'peace, liberty, hope and freedom
"The pageant closed with a flag dance and singing of the National
Anthem following presentation of exposition princesses by their tribal di-
rectors." By Gene Dodson. Reprinted from The Oklahoma City Times , August
ust 21, 1941.
WAGONS VERSUS AUTOMOBILES
Meeting the menace of lightless Indian wagons along the highways
of Arizona and New Mexico, Navajo Service is making plans to purchase more
than 8,000 red reflectors for Navajo Indian wagons. Several tragic acci-
dents have occurred between automobiles and wagons in recent months.
District supervisors, teachers and other field employees of Navajo
Service will supervise installation of reflectors on the left rear of all
wagons and the left side of the bridle band. They will be visible for a
distance of 300 yards.
Because of his fine
record, a Bannock Indian, Frank
W. Parker, has been detailed to
the Iowa Institute of Hydraulic
Research, Iowa City, for labor-
atory work and further study in
connection with sediment in
streams and soil mechanics.
The Iowa Institute is
a Federal laboratory financed
directly by the War Department
in cooperation with several
other Federal agencies.
As Associate Engineer
on the Headgate Rock Diversion
Dam in the Colorado River,
Frank Parker has had charge of
the testing of vast quantities of concrete and other materials which have
gone into the construction of the dam and spillway during the past three
years. This dam is the principal structure of a 100,000-acre irrigation
project being planned to meet the needs of many Southwest tribes whose pop-
ulation is increasing and who in some instances are already faced with ser-
ious land shortages.
Frank W. Parker
Held Many Jobs
Considerable of the materials which went into the concrete and
riprapping for the Headgate Rock Dam came from near Parker, Arizona, where
the dam was built. The concrete mixtures were tested daily by means of a
50,000-ton hydraulic press. Supervising these tests was only one job of
many which Mr. Parker held.
Frank Parker is thirty-two years old. He received a Bachelor
of Science's degree in Civil Engineering at the Oregon State College. He
has worked for the Oregon State Highway Department and the War Department.
Professor E. W. Lane is immediate supervisor of the laboratory
work at the Institute for Hydraulic Research. A member of the committee
consisting of representatives from several Federal Agencies who formulate
the general program of the Institute is C. H. Southworth, Assistant Director
of the Irrigation Division. Other Federal Agencies participating are the
Geological Survey, the Bureau of Reclamation, Soil Conservation Service and
the Tennessee Valley Authority.
In The Fashion Of Their Forefathers
— Chippewos Gather Wild Rice
In the primitive fashion of their forefathers, Minnesota's Chip-
pewa Indians are now pitching their tents along the shores of the rice
lakes, preparing to harvest their wild rice crop that has become e dinner
table delicacy throughout the nation.
The history of wild rice dates back many years prior to the ad-
vent of the white man in the Great Lakes region. Before the white man came,
the Chippewas were using wild rice as food. Diaries and reports of the
earliest fur traders and missionaries into the Northwest Territory, now a
part of Minnesota, contain accounts of the Indians using wild rice for
food. Father Hennepin, as early as 1683 says in his diary that, "In the
lakes grew an abundance of wild oats, without any culture or sowing, pro-
vided the lakes were not over three feet deep."
Many Battles Fought
The old Indians of today tell interesting stories in connection
with the rice fields and say that many fierce battles were fought between
the Chippewas and Sioux for the* possession of the wild rice beds. So highly
did the Indians esteem the rice, which according to legend was provided by
the Great Spirit to keep them well and strong, that they named many streams,
lakes, and villages for it. Minnesota's wild rice beds cover approximately
200,000 acres of land in twenty counties.
In the Chippewa tongue August means "month of harvesting wild
rice"; September, "bright colored leaves." These two months play a very
important part in the harvesting of wild rice in Northern Minnesota, for
it is in these months that the grain ripens and becomes ready for harvest-
Harvested As Of Old
Implements and methods of harvesting, as used by the Indians, are
almost as ancient as the industry itself. The Indians see no need for mod-
ernization and are content to carry on the work as of old.
Wild rice, an annual plant, grows in miry places, or shallow wa-
ter. The seed, shed in the autumn, lies in the alluvial mvd until spring,
when it grows rapidly out of the water, often to a height of six or seven
feet. The kernels, when ripe, do not remain on the stalks long, but drop
to the water and anchor themselves in the mud and produce the crop the fol-
lowing year. Wild rice is susceptible to storms and frosts and is wholly
dependent upon proper water levels. If the lake or water levels are too
high to use the Indian term "it is drowned out", and the stalks are lifted
off the stems and float. If it is low, especially for several seasons, in-
stead of wild rice growing, weeds such as cattails come up.
When the harvest is ready the Chippewas gather in camps along
the shores of the lakes. The rice is gathered in flat-bottomed, sharp-
prowed canoes which are pushed through the beds of yellowed grain by means
of paddles or long forked poles, depending on the thickness of the crop.
The crew of the boat usually consists of two persons, generally a man and
a woman. The man handles the canoe while the woman harvests, bending the
stalks over the side of the canoe with one hand, and gently beating the
ripened grain into the bottom of the boat with the other. Care must be
taken to prevent stirring up the mud on the lake bottom, and part of the
rice must be left to seed the bed for the coming year.
Wind And Birds Endanger It
As the grain is easily loosened by the wind and birds, as well
as by handling, it must be gathered just before maturity and subsequently
subjected to a process of drying and ripening. This is done either in the
open air, in the sunshine, or on a sheet supported on a rack over a slow
fire. In the latter case, the smoke of the fire also hardens and preserves
the grain. This crude method has been handed down from generation to gen-
eration and is still being used by the old Indians.
Threshing machines came into use a few years ago, but they de-
stroyed the rice beds. The State Conservation Commissioner prohibited the
use of these machines lest their operation completely destroy some of the
most prolific beds.
When sun—dried, the hull remains until the crop is threshed. The
hull is removed by a method of treading, either with the feet or with sticks
shaped like churn dashers. The process breaks and removes the brittle
hull. When the threshing is done with sticks, the unhulled grain is put
into a hole dug about two feet deep in the ground, suitably lined with
skins or cedar slabs and is then beaten or churned. This is the old method
used by the Indians for years.
Grain Is Winnowed
When sufficiently threshed, the grain is winnowed in a dish made
of birch bark. As the grain is poured from dish to dish, the wind gently
carries the chaff away, or the grain may be spread on a blanket and the
chaff blown out by the use of a hand fan.
The Government is well aware of the importance of this commercial
industry to the Indian people, and has taken steps to prevent its ultimate
destruction. In recent years it has been seriously threatened by the en-
croachment of the white man.
That the Indian is a natural conservationist has been shown many
times, but never more forcibly than in the case of the wild rice harvest.
The primitive harvesting methods used by the Indians for generations
were not destructive, but insured a perpetual annual crop, water levels be-
ing normal. In recent years, however, there has been a steady growth of
whites entering the wild rice beds. Their carelessness and wastefulness,
together with tlieir greediness in gathering the immature grain, which in
turn forced the Indians to harvest the rice before it was ripe - ruined many
of the rice beds and threatened to inflict hardship upon many Minnesota
Ind ians .
Steps Taken To Preserve Industry
Both the State and Federal Governments were quick to sense the
danger, and in line with the Administration's program of conservation, steps
were taken to preserve this industry. In 1939, the State of Minnesota
passed a bill regulating the gathering of wild rice in certain areas, by
granting to the Indians exclusive right to harvest the wild rice crop upon
the public waters of the White Earth, Leech Lake, Nett Lake, Vermillion,
Grand Portage, Fond du Lac and Mille Lac Reservations. Among other pro-
visions, the bill regulated the harvesting hours, the type and size of boats
to be used, prohibited the use of machinery in harvesting and required a
license of all rice gatherers. The Government has purchased suitable lands
bordering wild rice bearing lakes for camp sites for the Indians during the
rice season. The CCC-ID has constructed water and sanitary facilities,
built trails, pumps, cleared brush and done other improvement around the
rice lakes. Important contributions have been made also by the Indian Ser-
vice's Extension Division, by improving the quality of the rice, securing
markets for the crop and securing prices reasonable to both buyer and pro-
Preservation of the wild rice is important not only to the In-
dians, but to whites as well, for this food in recent years has found its
way to the markets of the larger cities where it is used in a variety of
ways including breakfast cereal, wild rice pudding and as stuffing for fowl.
The Minnesota Chippewas operate a corporate rice marketing enterprise and
are shipping wild rice to almost every state in the Union.
Independent Study Of Indian Self-Government
A study of Indian self-government, made possible in part by the
Robert Marshall Civil Liberties Trust, is being undertaken by the American
Association on Indian Affairs. Robert Marshall formerly was Director of
Forestry in the Indian Service. He died in 1939. The present plan provides
for an examination of tribal and other organizations on the Mescalero Apache
Reservation in New Mexico, the Papago in Arizona, and the Eastern Cherokee
in North Carolina. Other reservations may be included in the future.
Most of the field work is being undertaken by Moris Burge, Acting
Executive Director of the Association. A special committee of the Associa-
tion, consisting of Dr. Jay B. Nash, Dr. William Duncan Strong and Dr.
Eduard Lindeman, has been appointed to consult with Mr. Burge regarding his
findings and the preparation of the report.
Learning The Use Of Modern Laundry
Equipment, Carson School, Nevada
Changes At Blackfeet And Fort Hall
Two new Indian Service appointments have been announced by Sec-
retary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes. Roy Nash has been named Superinten-
dent of the Blackfeet Agency at Browning, Montana, and Charles L. Graves
has been appointed Superintendent of the Fort Hall Agency in Idaho. Mr.
Nash formerly was Superintendent of the Sacramento, California, Agency,
while Mr. Graves for the past five years has been Superintendent at Black-
feet. Both will assume their new duties September 1.
At Blackfeet Mr. Nash will have under his jurisdiction U% 500
Blackfeet Indians who live on a reservation of 1,258, 3UU acres in northern
Montana along the Canadian border. The economic outlook of these Indians
was for many years a bleak one. Their reservation, just east of Glacier
National Park, is subject to high winds and bitter winters. A small portion
of the land was irrigated and some livestock was owned by the Indians, but
a large part of the reservation's grass was leased to outsiders. Many of
the Indians lived in hovels, eking out an existence wherever they could
Cattle Round-Up At Fort Hall, Idaho
find it, unable to obtain the credit witn which to launch enterprises of
In part as a result of the operations of the Indian Reorganization
Act of 193A, these Indians are today on their way to becoming economically
self-sufficient. A total of 2,727 additional acres of land have been pur-
chased for the Tribe. Government credit has been extended, enabling them to
expand their cattle and other industries. Through a rehabilitation program,
fifty families have been established on irrigated tracts of reservation
land where they have built houses and barns, planted gardens and acquired
livestock. Additional grazing land has been made available to them. Other
families have been rehabilitated on their own lands throughout the reserva-
The new Superintendent, Roy Nash, is a native of Wisconsin and
attended the University of Wisconsin, Columbia University and the Yale For-
estry School. He is author of "The Conquest of Brazil", a comprehensive
survey of the social conditions among the Brazilian Indians, which was in-
cluded in the League of Nation's list.
Accepted Indian Reorganization Act
The 2,000 Bannock and Shoshone Indians of the Fort Hall Agency
live on a 477,244-acre reservation in southeastern Idaho. These Tribes
also are organized under th*e Indian Reorganization Act, having accepted
the Act on October 27, 1934. They have adopted a constitution and by-laws,
a charter of incorporation and a law and order code, and have charge of
a $100,000 revolving credit fund which is loaned to individuals and organ-
izations, making it possible for the Indians to finance activities which
would otherwise be impossible. Under provisions of this Act, the Govern-
ment has purchased 4,86l acres of additional land for the Tribes. Cattle
furnish these Indians their greatest source of income, with agriculture
Charles L. Graves, the new Superintendent at Fort Hall, entered
the Indian Service in 1928 as Director of Agriculture. Previous to his
services at Blackfeet he was Superintendent of the Jicdrilla, New Mexico,
Agency. He is a native of Ashton, South Dakota, and a graduate of the South
Dakota State College.
IROQUOIS INDIAN NAMED BRIGADIER
A full-blood Iroquois Indian, Brigadier 0. M. Martin, has been ap-
pointed to command an infantry brigade in the Canadian Active Army, it has
been learned. He is the first Indian to hold such high rank in a modern army.
Brigadier Martin comes from the largest band of Iroquois, the Six Nations at
Brantford, Ontario, and was among the 292 soldiers from this band who went
to the front during the last war. He .was a Toronto school teacher in pri-
vate life and during the last war served for a time in the air force. New
A Haskell Student Learns
Indians la the News
At the close of the Civil War, the Western Frontier was almost
defenseless against the skillful and daring attacks of the Red Man. It was
General George Crook who fostered legislation which was passed in 1866 pro-
viding for the enlistment of up to 1,000 Indians as scouts, guides and coun-
sellors in Indian warfare. Indians of many tribes served in 288 engagements
after 1870 before the hostile tribes were finally pacified. As the West be-
came peaceful, the Indian posts were abandoned until finally only Fort
Huachuca was left. Eight of these proud, dignified, loyal Indian scouts re-
main. They are Apaches and are located in southern Arizona along the Mexican
border. No enlistments have been accepted in the Scouts since 1923. Appro-
priately enough, the eight remaining scouts are entrusted now with the
guarding and preservation of the Fort Huachuca Military Reservation, part
of the land their fathers once fought to win for the United States. For
parades and special occasions these scouts wear ceremonial regalia and make
a colorful addition to the 25th Infantry of the United States Army. The
scouts live in a little village just inside the Army post. Their houses
are of adobe, built by themselves with material supplied by the post.
Augusta , Georgia . The Herald . 7/l0Al . (NEA Feature Story)
Several members of the Whitecloud Indian family of New Mexico were
recently brought from an Indian reservation there to appear on the Utah
Pioneer Days program. They presented their ceremonial, the "rain dance."
That night it rained torrents, washing out the events of the evening. The
next night the dancers performed again - and so did the rain clouds. Wil-
mington , North Carolina . The Star . 7/28/41 .
Work has started on what will be one of the Nation's largest In-
dian medical centers, comprising a hospital, a five-story nurses' quarters,
attendants' quarters, laundry and shop buildings, commissary building, gar-
age and homes for staff physicians. The hospital, located at Tacoma, Wash-
ington, will serve Indians throughout Montana, Idaho, Oregon, Washington
and Alaska. Missoula , Montana . The Mjssoulian . 7/25/41 .
The Navajo have been so successful in their cooperative store and
trading post at Mexican Springs, that they have opened a second one in the
mountains for ranchers and farmers who live there during the summer and for
permanent residents. General Superintendent E. R. Fryer of the Navajo
Agency was principal speaker at the dedication exercises of the new shop.
Phoenix , Arizona . The Republic . 7/31/41 .
An army of Alaskan Indians is signing up to serve the country in
its move for national defense. The selective service registration at Ta-
nana, on the lower Yukon, showed 70 per cent natives In an enrollment of
157. Denver , Colorado . The Post . 7/12/41 .
Warner Brothers will import some Sioux Indians from their reser-
vation in the Black Hills of South Dakota for employment in "They Died With
Their Boots On", a picture about General George Custer's military career.
St . Paul , Minnesota . The Dispatch . 7/11/ 41 .
Officer of the day for the 67th Armored Regiment of the Second
Armored Division went to inspect the sentries on duty one night about mid-
night but found that one was missing. Because several newly-assigned se-
lectees were on guard detail, he decided to be a bit lenient and so spent
several minutes looking for the sentry before he called the Sergeant. But
even with the Sergeant's help it was a little while before they discovered
the missing guard between two tanks. "Where have you been," demanded the
Captain. "Here on my post, sir," answered the Private. "My orders say I'm
not to let suspicious persons loiter near my post. I beg your pardon, sir,
but I thought you were a suspicious character and I was stalking you to see
that you didn't walk off with anything." The sentry was a full-blood In-
dian. He had been hovering within jumping distance of the Captain through-
out the search. It was then explained to him that he should challenge un-
recognized persons at once. Tampa , Florida . The Times . 7/17/41 ♦
No nursers of old grievances are the Penobscot Indians who live
near Old Town, Maine. They make a daily rite of pledging allegiance to the
American flag. This tribe of Indians now numbers approximately 600. Many
of them died in World War I. Austin , Texas . The American . 7/31/41 *
During the past school year a group of ten Paiute Indian girls of
the Nevada Day School at Nixon, Nevada, and eight Paiute women have been
knitting sweaters for the Washoe County Chapter of the American Red Cross.
When they started last fall none of the women even knew how to hold a knit-
ting needle, Red Cross officials said, but were accustomed to sewing and
making Indian articles for sale, such as Indian dolls, deerskin gloves and
moccasins and beaded articles. Reno , Nevada . The Nevada State Journal .
Alvin Zephier is the first Indian student to graduate from the
South Dakota State University. He is the son of an Episcopal minister,
serving the Indian people at Wounded Knee. He earned a share of his school
expenses by doing janitor work at St. Paul's Episcopal Chapel at Vermillion.
Young Zephier plans to make practical use of his education and training in
serving his own people. He will have charge of adult education and recrea-
tional activities and personnel guidance among the Indians in the work camps
of the Assiniboin Indian Reservation at Fort Belknap. Sioux City , Iowa.
The Tribune . 6/2/41 .
A House Remodelled Under The Rehabilitation
Program Is Painted By An Indian Of The
Sisseton, S. D., Agency
Book Of Pictures And Text By Mrs. Macgregor
Is Prominently And Favorably Reviewed
Twent ieth Century Indiana , Photographs and text by Frances Cooke
Macgregor. With a foreword by Clark Wissler. 127 pages. Putnam. $3.00.
(Reprinted from the daily column "Books of the Times" by Charles
Poore, New York Times, August 16, 1941.)
"The oldest by far of all our first families should gather their
clans into a society. It might be called the S. D. S. M. The initials, of
course, would stand for Sons and Daughters of the Siberian Migration, and
the members would be the American Indians whose ancestors, according to many
authorities, came to this country from Siberia by way of the Bering Straits
and Alaska some ten to twenty-five thousand years ago.
"For, compared to the Indians, we're all pretty recent immigrants
here. Their town and country houses are scattered over America. True, the
extent of their estates has been considerably reduced by new arrivals on
these shores. But, as Frances Cooke Macgregor shows in the illuminating
text and excellent photographs of 'Twentieth Century Indians*, they are by
no means a dying race. On the contrary, they are increasing.
"The Oldest American Families
"Indeed, Mrs. Macgregor tells us, they have increased with such
rapidity during the past eight years that their birth rate is nearly twice
that of the country's white population as a whole. Yet there are not so
many of them - 361,000, all told, according to last year's census, or about
one-third of a million.
"They are divided into some 300 tribes scattered about the nation.
They speak more than 200 different dialects and languages. Examples cited
aire the Navajo, Pima, Papago, Pueblo and Apache tribes in the Southwest; the
Porno, Paiute, Yakima and Klamath tribes in the Pacific States; the Sioux,
Arapaho, Cheyenne and Kiowa in the Plains country; the Passamaquoddy, Nar-
ragansett and Seminole tribes on the Eastern coast. Not all are full-
blooded, naturally. More than half are of mixed blood. Since they speak
different languages, English is becoming the common tongue of communication,
and, to some extent, so is Spanish in the Southwest.
"American Indian Life Today
"The abundance of misinformation that most of us show about these
fellow-Americans stirred Mrs. Macgregor to try to present a true picture of
Indian life as it exists today. Four or five years ago she made a photo-
graphic study of an Indian community in Northern California. That led to a
commission from the United States Office of Indian Affairs... Her text for
this informing cross-section of American Indian life was gathered from auth-
oritative writing, and it has all been gone over by Rene d'Harnoncourt, gen-
eral manager of the Indian Arts and Grafts Board, and Clark Wissler, curator
of anthropology at the American Museum of Natural History, who contributes
a foreword to the book.
"The photographs are far from the usual vacation-picture-postcard
and now-we'11-have-a-rain-dance conception of American Indians. Here are
"A Wampanoag Indian of Gayhead on Martha's Vineyard, wearing over-
alls and a visored cap, digs for clams on the beach. A Papago living sev-
enty miles from Tucson, Arizona, drives his wagon into the hills to get
wood he can sell the white people in town. Two canvas wall-tents with bat-
tered stovepipes curving out show how some Arapaho families live in Okla-
" On And Off The Reservation
"In Minden, Nevada, Washo Indians drive furrows on a ranch - and
we are told that their keenness of eye makes them superior to white men in
keeping the lines between the markers straight. At Carson City, squatters
live in shacks on a dumpheap for all the world as though they were in one
of the Hoovervilles of the early depression years. On a Navajo reservation
a small boy herds sheep. At Phoenix advanced Indian students study tractor
and Diesel motor operations. In the desert the Papagos build houses out of
desert plant stalk and adobe.
"In crisp, brief chapters Mrs. Macgregor discusses the land prob-
lem of the Indians, their religion, their diseases and their health, their
education, their subsistence, their population changes, their housing, their
surviving native culture and their history.
"Not least are their contributions to American life and to the
life of the world. 'Seme of these,* Mrs. Macgregor points out, 'have played
a large part in the commerce of the world, such as tobacco, cocoa, cotton
and rubber. The Indians passed on to the white man many valuable foods , in-
cluding corn, squash, beans, tomatoes, pumpkins, peanuts and maple sugar.
Many drugs we now find to be indispensable were discovered by them, for in-
stance quinine, witch hazel, ipecac and cocaine. They contributed also to
a number of sports we enjoy today: canoeing, snowshoeing, tobogganing, la-
crosse and archery. They have enriched our lives by their talent for making
beautiful baskets, blankets, paintings, jewelry and pottery; and their col-
orful songs and dances have given America a folklore distinctly its own.'
"Yet America has in the past shown a peculiar kind of gratitude
toward the Indian: 'Treaties were broken,' Mrs. Macgregor goes on to say,
•regardless of our national honor. The Indian was thrust aside, for, ac-
cording to our standards, he seemed backward and inferior. His intelligence
was doubted, and we were prejudiced because his color was different from
ours. He could not become a white man, and yet we tried to destroy his In-
dian way of life.'
"Now, however, a good deal of this has been changed. The Indian,
Mrs. Macgregor feels, has more hope; the whites are not only beginning to
help him but also to understand him: 'He has at last been recognized as an
inventive and intelligent being whose poverty is not entirely the result of
his own doing, who, while his opportunities have been less than ours, is
neither superior nor inferior to other peoples.'
"Help the Indians to help themselves, this book suggests, and
you'll help them to do their share in helping this country - which was
theirs long before it was yours or mine."
The Glories Of Yesterday
Hear Me , My Chiefs , by Herbert Ravenel Sass. Published by William
Morrow and Company. $2.50.
"A wind blew west over the Atlantic, driving before it a frothy
foam or scum. It blew this scum, which was evil and unclean, upon the shore
of the American continent and the scum took form. The form that it took
was that of a white man - of many white people, both men and women; wherever
the scum lodged on the shore of the continent, it took this form."
So with this quotation from an old Shawnee Indian, Mr. Sass de-
lights in writing of the Indian's past to shock the layman out of his common-
place misconceptions. Even though the serious student of Indian affairs
might wish for more facts and less of Mr. Sass's repetitious and imaginative
writing, still one will have to admit Mr. Sass's style should arouse the
layman's curiosity and may furnish him a refreshing point of view on early
Of Chief Joseph, of Tsali, of Emperor Brims, of Sauts the Bat, he
writes, and of the tragic Tonquin eaplosion off the Pacific Northwest Coast.
Mr. Sass also writes of dreams. Of Haionhwatha, not Longfellow's mythical
hero, but a real Hiawatha who formed the Iroquois Confederacy "to secure
universal peace and welfare among men by the recognition and enforcement of
the forms of civil government." And of a white man's dream, little Christ-
ian Priber, accepted among the Cherokee as their own, who planned to weld
the Southern Indian Nations into a great communal state.
And Mr. Sass touches briefly on much that might be superior in In-
dian culture to that of the white colonists. If woman's relative position
in society is a test of a people's culture, then the Iroquois, Cherokee,
Huron and other Indian nations ranked high. And if a man's harmony with na-
ture is also a test, then the Indians surpassed the white man in many civil-
izing qualities. From the millions of birds, countless buffalo, deer, bears,
and turkeys which made Eastern America the richest land known, the Indian
took only what he needed. But in a few years the white colonists had almost
completely stripped the Eastern woodlands of their vast riches.
The book is well worth reading. Reviewed by Eleanor Williams .
/ND/ANS CONSERVING AND REBU/LDfNG
THEM RESOURCES THROUGH CCC-W.
Camping Comes Natural To The Navajo
Call 'em side camps, spike camps, fly camps or what you will,
they are pretty comfortable for outdoor living during the summer months
on the Navajo Reservation.
Plans and management of these Indian CCC camps have been modified
from the orthodox CCC design in order to have them fit more nearly into the
traditional pattern of Indian life and culture.
These Navajo enrollees do their own cooking. They like it better
that way, and do it on the outdoor stoves individually set up in front of
each tent. In bad weather they can transfer the cooking operations to the
stoves inside the tents. However, good weather is the rule in Western Na-
vajo during most of the summer months. The campus in front of the tents
contains the area for parking cars and trucks, the water supply and showers,
the baseball diamond and the basketball and horseshoe courts.
Navajos work and play in groups. In the evening after the supper
tasks and chores are finished you can hear the beat of drum and rattle and
the chant of singers, and often there is dancing.
"White Gold "
One of the big tasks of Indian CCC is the construction of irriga-
tion and flood control structures. Conservation of water is most important
among the CCC projects in the Navajo Reservations. Water is called "White
Gold" in the arid Southwest. Indian enrollees have become expert stone
masons and are, in fact, adept at the many skills required in building these
complicated water storage structures.
As the rains come only intermittently and sometimes at long in-
tervals, dams are placed across the principal drainages to impound the flood
waters after the rain. This reduces the flood hazard and captures a water
supply which can be let out through the control structures to the stock wa-
tering troughs or to the small irrigated fields below.
The Navajos go out eagerly each morning to their work because
they realize that this preservation of their lands from soil erosion and
the capturing of water is to their own advantage as well as in the interest
of national conservation.
Each week the CCC-ID group meets with the people of nearby commu-
nities when they discuss problems of range and livestock management and
other subjects vital to their economic and social well-being.
Shoshone-Bannock Tribesmen Conduct Unusual
Ceremomol In Honor Of Louis Balsam
"In tribute to Dr. Louis Balsam and his accomplishments
on behalf of the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe during his nine-month
service as Superintendent at the reservation agency, the Indians Sat-
urday had broken a 107-year-old tradition by honoring Dr. Balsam at
a farewell ceremonial dance.
'Tribal business council officers said no such dance cere-
monial has previously been accorded to a white man in the history of
the Tribe, a history dating back to 1834. Dr. Balsam came to the
reservation in September, 1940, to succeed Superintendent F. A. Gross,
who had been transferred to the Colville Reservation at Nespelem,
"The ceremonial dance started with the beat of the giant
drum in ancient Eagle Lodge, by which the Fort Hall tribal business
council and old tribal chieftains summoned their people from every
portion of the reservation. Heeding the call of the drums and the
fast-spreading word of the unusual ceremunial, tribal members streak-
ed across the sagebrush-strewn reservation from every direction, don-
ning colorful ceremonial costumes before embarking for the lodge by
foot, on horseback or in automobiles.
"Aged tribal members who were capable of dancing went through
the ceremonial in personal tribute to Dr. Balsam. Leading the dances
were Dave Pokibro, 74 years old; Yellow John, Sr. , 68; Louis Simmons,
67; Teeahganditse, 65; and Pahneeno, 49; all fullblood Bannocks who
paced through the ancient ritual as they had learned to do from their
"Willie George, council chairman, made an impressive fare-
well address, expressing the affection of the Indians for Dr. Balsam,
and adding their verbal farewell wishes. Nannas Teton, one of the
old sub-chiefs of the Tribe, also gave a message of farewell, and
brief talks were given by Tom Cosgrove, Louis Simmons, Edward Mats aw
and Willie Edmo, council members, and Frank Randall. At the close
of the ceremonial, Council Chairman Willie George presented Dr. Balsam
a colorful beaded belt, and the ceremony ended with a 'give-away.'"
Reprinted from The Salt Lake (Utah) Tribune.
3 9088 01625 0748